Make compact cities edible: the Taipei Garden City Initiative 可食的緊湊城市:台北田園城市倡議

One might question the casual use of Howard’s ‘Garden City’ in this policy, as it is definitely not one of the followers of his planning masterpiece. Rather, the ‘Garden City’ Programme in Taipei is a new type of urban farming that puts hundreds of small edible gardens into densely built-up areas for providing horticultural therapy, recreational opportunities, environmental education, and broad environmental benefits through engaging citizens in food cultivation. This practice has gained increasing popularity in the Global North within the narrative of nature-based solutions for cities, which reintroduces greenspaces and associated functions into built environments, with the aspiration of leading to a socially and ecologically more sustainable city. Amid the coronavirus outbreak, urban farming has seemed to become an even more critical practice for cities experiencing lockdown, as food supply chains are upended and a piece of edible garden close-by residents could enhance both food security and mental health.

田園城市計畫這個看似隨性的政策名稱或許會受到質疑,畢竟它並不是霍華德『田園城市』這部都市規劃巨作的奉行者。台北市的田園城市政策其實是一種新型態的都市農耕,它在高密度發展的建成區中設置了數百個小型的可食園圃,透過讓居民參與食物耕種的方式來提供園藝治療、休閒遊憩、環境教育以及廣泛的環境效益。都市園圃深受已開發國家的歡迎並將之視為城市中『以自然為基礎的解決方案 (nature-based solutions)』之一,透過在建成環境中引入綠地以及連帶的功能來達成對於社會與生態永續城市的嚮往。在新冠肺炎爆發的此時,都市農耕對於正經歷封城的城市來說似乎越發重要,畢竟食物的供給鏈受到延宕,而在居家附近能擁有一小片可食的園圃,不但有助於提升食物安全,同時對於身心健康也有正向的助益。

The Taipei Garden City programme was officially launched in 2015 after a long incubation period of practices in local societies, which eventually formed a ‘Farming Urbanism Network’ and proposed a White Paper that were accepted by current mayor – Ko Wen-je. Since then, 733 garden city sites have been established across Taipei City, covering 19.75 hectares and involving in 54,013 citizens (as of Feb 2020). This includes four main types of gardens:

台北田園城市計畫於2015年正式執行前,在地方社群的經營之下經歷了很長一段的醞釀期,並且形成了都市農耕網這個組織。該組織在2014年台北市市長選舉期間對市長候選人提出相關的政策白皮書,並且獲得現任市長柯文哲的採納並執行。截至2020年2月為止,台北市在全市共建立了733的田園基地,涵蓋19.75公頃,共有54,103位市民參與。本項計畫共包含四類園圃:

  • Happy gardens (30%): the use of disused public lands for engaging local communities to plant vegetables and to maintain the site;
  • Green roofs (11%): the use of rooftop of public buildings for engaging surrounding communities to plant vegetables and to maintain the site;
  • School gardens (45%): the use of grounds and rooftops of schools (from primary to senior high schools) to engage teachers and students in environmental education;
  • Allotment gardens (14%): larger privately-owned lands that are designated as agriculture zones and were created long before the Garden City programme and are mostly located in the urban outskirts.

快樂農場 (30%):利用閒置公有土地來鼓勵社區居民參與蔬菜植以及維護;
綠屋頂 (11%):利用公有建築物的屋頂來設置社區園圃,鼓勵周遭居民參與蔬菜種植以及維護;
小田園 (45%):利用各級中小學的校園或建物屋頂建置園圃,主要耕種者為學校師生,耕種活動聚焦於環境教育(食農教育);
市民農園 (14%):多屬私有土地上的較大型休閒農園,大多位於城郊的農業區。

Apart from allotment gardens, most of the first three types of gardens were newly established in the most populated districts of the city, where population density is often above 20,000 per km2. Amongst them, finding lands for establishing a ground-level ‘happy garden’ is particularly challenging. As these activities often make use of lands owned by the public sector and are temporarily available, it subsequently reduces the need to alter land use zones and building codes and save budget for land acquisition. Allocating doorstep gardens within urban communities, however, requires enormous efforts to negotiate and coordinate between public and private sectors. Innovative approaches are also developing to gain more spaces for public gardening. For example, the garden at Dexing Park, which is right next to SOGO department store, was donated by Shihlin Electric as part of its corporate social responsibility activities.

除了市民農園之外,其餘三項園圃多設置在人口密集的行政區,某些園圃更是位於人口密度高於每平方公里2萬人以上的地區。在這幾類的園圃之中,快樂農園的用地多位於地面,因此用地取得也最為挑戰。許多園圃的用地多為暫時未開闢的公有土地,從而減少土地利用或建築管制規則的變更需求,並節省用地取得的經費。然而在都市中設置鄰近區民的社區園圃絕非易事,仍有賴公私部門間的費力溝通與協調。除此之外,目前有些案例正發展以創新的方式來增加用地的取得,舉例來說,士林SOGO百貨公司旁的德行公園(含園圃),便是士林電機為實踐其企業社會責任而產生的用地捐贈。

Garden site inside Dexing Park next to SOGO department stores at Shihlin District
士林區SOGO百貨公司旁的德行公園與園圃

The existence of a champion in the city government, who is in charge of coordinating nearly 15 sectors, has set a good foundation for cross-sectoral collaboration and allows relevant issues and policies to be integrated and considered in the programme, such as elderly care, youth entrepreneurship, low carbon communities, food sanitation, horticulture therapy, and environmental education. The strong and proactive local communities, including community universities, wardens, and planning and design consultants, also enable the programme to gain important knowledge and technique support on the ground.

由於市政府有擁護者的存在,並負責跨局處的協調,因此使得高達15個市府單位參與其間,為協調與合作建立了良好的基礎,也使得相關的議題與政策,如長照、青年創業、低碳社區、食品安全、園藝治療、環境教育…等得以與田園城市計畫有適當的接軌。而強而活耀的地方社群,包括社區大學、里長、規劃設計顧問公司…等,亦為田園城市計畫的實踐提供了至關重要的耕種知識與技術。

Garden sites adjunct to Nangang metro station
南港捷運站出口的中南里快樂農場
Happiness Garden located at Songsan District
松山區復建里的幸福農場
Paddy field at Taiping primary school
太平國小內的水稻田
Da-an Silver Hair Garden on the rooftop of community centre
位於社區活動中心屋頂的大安銀髮開心農場

Several edible greenspaces are now flourishing in the city, from the most valuable commercial lands, residential areas, rooftops of community centres, hospitals, social houses, and business buildings, to hundreds of schools. And now the Taipei Garden City programme is moving toward the second phase, where its future direction is still being shaped by the interactive process with bottom-up and top-down dynamic to conquer emerging challenges.

台北市的可食綠地正茂盛的綻放著,從寸土寸金的商業區、住宅區到社區中心、醫院、社會住宅和企業大樓的屋頂,乃至於數百間中小學校園之內。目前台北田園城市計畫正邁向第二階段,藉由由下而上與由上而下兩者間的動態過程與公私協力,來逐步形塑未來政策的發展方向,並且解決逐漸出現的挑戰。

Workshop organised by local communities to shape future policies of Taipei Garden City 由地方社群(新鄉村協會、都農網…等)所組織的台北田園城市政策工作坊

Wan-Yu Shih’s research into the Taipei Garden City initiative is supported by the JPI Urban Europe-Belmont Forum-funded IFWEN project, on which she is a Co-Principal Investigator funded by Ministry of Science and Technology Taiwan under grant number MOST 107-2621-M-130 -001 -MY3.

3 thoughts on “Make compact cities edible: the Taipei Garden City Initiative 可食的緊湊城市:台北田園城市倡議

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  2. Pingback: Why urban greening alone will not make a ‘resilient city’ | Dr Leslie Mabon

  3. Pingback: The Pandemic Magnifies Spatial Inequity Arising from Greenspace Planning in Cities 疫情凸顯城市綠地規劃的空間不均等性 | URBAN GREEN ADAPTATION DIARY

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